If you are a stoner, chances are that we do not need to tell you that there exist two major strains of marijuana from which all other variants are derived. These are the Indica and the Sativa strains. There are some varieties of weed which are 100% indica-dominant, while some are 100% sativa-dominant strains. There are also hybrid strains which carry parents from both these strains in a mixed ratio. However, which are the best of each of these types of weed strains? We’ve got the answer! Here, we discuss the best Indica strains that you can buy in 2021.
While we’re sure most of you already know what indica strains are and what its characteristics and benefits are, we’ll just brush through them quickly so that new readers know it better and pro-stoners can refresh their memories a bit.
The Cannabis Indica strain gets its name from the region that it grows in. This kind of weed is largely found growing around the Indian subcontinent, and the Hindu Kush mountain region – in parts of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and other nearby regions, going all the way to Turkey. The strain was first identified in the 1780s and has since been known by the name.
When you look at the Cannabis Indica plants, you will immediately realize that they belong to this strain as they are quite different from the Cannabis Sativa strain of plants which have a very different sort of visual appeal. Cannabis Indica plants are generally shorter, stockier and bushier. The leaves of these plants are also quite wide when you compare with the slimmer Sativa leaves.
These are the plants which can grow in rather harsh climates, and thanks to the climatic conditions that they grow in, sometimes you can also see their flowers, buds and leaves turning purple. Another big benefit of the Indica strain over the Sativa strain is that it allows you to grow your plants faster, and with little effort compared to the Sativa plants. This also makes it quite suitable for those who are just starting out with their marijuana growing journey.
Different kinds of weed that you smoke have different kinds of an effect upon you. For instance, when you smoke indica weed, it makes you feel more drowsy, relaxed and helps you rest better. This kind of a weed is what people generally call a ‘downer’, because it slows them down rather than making them hyperactive. This weed is also great for those who wish to use it as a relaxant, or for medicinal purposes.
Over the course of this article, we shall be taking a closer look at some of the best strains of Cannabis Indica that you can buy as seeds and grow on your own.
Best Strains of Cannabis Indica
When you grow a plant, you start with the seed. Your seed needs to be selected carefully as the entire future of your plant depends upon it. People tend to choose seeds based on various factors. Some people choose them based on the kind of taste and smell that they get from the resulting plant, some people tend to choose it based on the kind of properties each strain carries, while others choose it based on the kind of ‘high’ that they get from it.
Here is a closer look at some of the best Indica-strains. Some of them are pure Indica strains, while others are Indica-dominant strains. We’ve also pointed out some characteristic features of each of these strains before we review them. We hope that by the time you finish reading this you’ll get a much better idea about all the options that you have:
- Indica-Dominant Strain
- THC up to 20%
- Flowers in 8 weeks
An indica-dominant strain of weed created by crossing the White Widow and North American strains, the White Rhino is a strain that you must buy if you plan on getting really, really high. With a THC concentration of 20%, this is the perfect strain for someone who is looking forward to smoking weed for recreational purposes. For those who are looking for a medicinal strain, you may be out of luck because of the minimal CBD content that this strain comes with.
Consuming this strain of marijuana in any form will give you a very happy-high. It makes you feel relaxed and you can kick back your shoes and just chill for a while. This is a strain that has won multiple awards, including the prestigious Cannabis Cup and the Champions Cup as well.
This strain gets its name from its top portion, which looks quite similar to the horn of a Rhino. When you smoke this strain, you get a very earthy and woody taste. Also, this is a sweet tasting strain. The White Rhino takes about 8 to 10 weeks to flower, and gives you a yield of about 17 usable ounces per plant. Keep in mind that this strain loves a humid climate and grows the best in that.
Another reason why people love this strain of weed is that the White Rhino isn’t really associated with many side effects. You get your usual red eyes and cottonmouth effects but that’s pretty much it. This is also a good marijuana strain to deal with body aches as it gives you a very numbing sort of a body-high. All in all, one of the best indica dominant strains of marijuana that you can buy online.
- 100% Indica strain
- About 20% THC content
- Autoflowering seeds – ready to harvest in 10 weeks
Seeds and strains that trace their origin in Afghanistan or the greater Af-Pak region are largely 100% Indica strains, and the Afghan Autoflowering strain is no different. This is also a very potent strain of weed, allowing you to relax mentally as well as physically. This is something that connoisseurs of the Indica strain would particularly appreciate because this strain carries absolutely no traces of Sativa.
Auto Afghan is a strain that has been developed keeping the ease of growers in mind. This is an autoflowering strain, meaning the lighting conditions don’t really impact the growth cycle of the plant and it flowers automatically when the time comes. The strain takes about 10 weeks to be ready for harvest – making it a quick and effective option for novice growers as well as professional growers alike. This is also a strain which is quite easy to grow indoors.
The taste and smell of this weed is also quite unique. It gives you the feeling of a very herbal, spicy and pungent smelling, all-natural product. The strain traces its origin in the Hindu Kush mountains in the Af-Pak region, and is a strain that can grow in dry as well as humid climates. Besides that, since it is an autoflowering strain, you will need to grow it indoors.
The Auto Afghan strain is one which helps you sleep better by slowing down your thoughts. This is also one which is great for anxiety relief because of the same reason. The strain also helps relax tight and tired muscles, and can also help you in pain relief. These seeds are available in the packs of 5, 10 or 20 and make for a great indoor strain.
3. Persian Mix
- Pack of 15/30 seeds
- Contains Hindu Kush + Afghan Feminized + Pure Indica Strains
- Helps you relax
This is a pack of three different strains of indica-only seeds from ILGM. The first one on the Indica strains list is the Hindu Kush strain, followed by the Afghan strain, followed by the Pure Indica strain. These are all 100% indica strains and carry no trace of sativa elements. These have been aptly named the ‘Persian Mix’ because they grow in the Iran-Iraq-Afghanistan regions, formerly Persia.
Let us address each of these seeds one by one. First up, the Hindu Kush strain. As the name suggests, it grows along the Hindu Kush mountains in the Af-Pak region. Smoking this weed will not only make you feel happier, but will also make you hungrier. This is a strain known to give people quite the munchies! It is also used by people who suffer from a lack of appetite. You get about 18% concentration of THC in this bud, giving you a decent high.
If the 18% THC doesn’t do it for you, and you want an even stronger strain, the Afghan strain should be the one for you. Note that this is not the same as the one we’ve seen above, as that is the autoflowering Afghan strain, the Auto Afghan. This is the regular Afghan strain, grown frequently by those stoners who love to grow large quantities of weed – as this gives you between 400 to 600 grams of yield per square meter. The strain carries about 20% THC content and takes about 9 weeks to flower.
Lastly, there’s the ‘Pure Indica’ strain, which, as the name suggests, is 100% indica. The strain originates in the same region as the other two. It flowers a little faster, at about 8 weeks. Besides that, another great thing about the Pure Indica strain is that it carries a somewhat lower 14% THC concentration, making it a great option for those just starting out with their weed smoking journey. You get a very earthy/fruity sort of a vibe when you smoke this strain.
These seeds come in packs of 5 each or 10 each, giving you a set of 15 or 30 seeds. A combination that everyone who loves 100% indica strains must totally try out.
- Berry-like citric and fruity taste
- 21% THC
- Suitable for growing indoors
A cross between Girl Scout Cookies and Pink Panties strain, the Sunset Sherbert offers you with one of the best tasting options in the Cannabis Indica strain. This is something that isn’t something that everyone would want, but for those who know the specific taste, there’s nothing better. The Sunset Sherbert strain offers you a very tangy, citric and berry-like taste. This is a decent mix of sweet and sour flavors that some people really enjoy.
What also sets this strain apart is the fact that it offers a high THC concentration! You get about 21% THC and trace CBD here. This is a cannabis strain that can be grown indoors with ease, you just need to ensure that you are providing it with the right kind of humidity. The strain loves a Mediterranean sort of climate. Another great thing about these plants is that they are naturally resistant to mold and mildew.
The flowering phase of this strain begins at about the eight week mark. However, it might take a little extra time as well depending on when you are reducing the lighting. Since this is not an autoflowering strain, you will need to manually reduce the lights to trigger the flowering process.
When you grow it under ideal circumstances, the Sunset Sherbert strain provides you with about 8 ounces of bud per square meter when grown indoors. This provides the kind of high that allows you to relax your entire body. It gives you a comfortable body-high that allows you to sleep better.
- Up to 21% THC concentration
- Provides about 550gm per square meter of yield
- Great strain for growing indoors
Named the ‘Corona’ Kush as it was probably invented during the pandemic, this Indica-dominant bud became quite popular among stoners in the recent months. However, despite its popularity, much of its origin remains under the wraps as the exact lineage of this bud is not known. The strain has a high THC concentration ranging between 18 to 21%, which makes it a very good fit for those who want to smoke it for recreational uses. The strain also offers you up to 1% of CBD content.
The plant is well-suited for indoor growth too, as it grows between 3 to 5ft of height. The total yield that you get is about 550 grams per square meter if you are growing it indoors. If you plan on growing this plant, you need to know that this is a strain of weed that loves sunlight. The brighter the light you give it, the better the result it will give you.
While this is an Indica dominant strain, the kind of high that you get from it is a very active and energetic one, and it fills you with glee. For those smoking it for the first time, it starts off slowly and then gives you a really good ‘hit’ after a while. However, while it does give you an active and energetic high at start, you will begin to notice that your body will start feeling more and more relaxed with time. Hence, this isn’t something you want to have if you have a lot of work to do.
People suffering from diseases related to the muscles can also consume this strain as it allows you to relax them easily. Besides that, the Corona Kush strain of marijuana also helps with stress, nausea and palpitations. This is a strain that has a strong and pungent smell but a very sweet taste that a lot of people actually enjoy.
- Pure Indica strain
- Between 15 to 20% THC content
- Helps reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety
As we have already pointed out above, if you are looking at a cannabis strain that is purple in color, it actually has a high chance of being an Indica strain. ‘Crushed Grapes’ is no different. This very attractive looking strain of marijuana is a pure Indica strain, which has its roots somewhere in the Indica Blueberry strains. While the exact lineage is unknown, Crushed Grapes certainly derives its present day form factor from the aforementioned blueberry strain.
This is a strain that takes between seven to eight weeks to reach the flowering stage, which is pretty common for most Indica plants. When you smoke the strain, you get a very candy-like or berry-like sweet taste. It has a moderate THC concentration, varying usually between 15 to 20%. The CBD concentration is low, standing at about 0.30%.
Growing these plants is no big deal either, and it suits most beginners pretty well as it can be grown indoors under a controlled environment, as well as outdoors. However, you need to make sure you are giving it sufficient warmth, as well as sunlight. Humidity levels need not be too high, but you will require moderate levels of humidity when growing the Crushed Grapes strain.
When you smoke this weed, you get a strong and earthy smell. The ‘high’ that you get is quite euphoric and most stoners actually enjoy it. This is also a very pretty strain to look at and makes for a great ‘handmade’ gift if you are growing it yourself. Lastly, while the strain doesn’t carry too many medicinal benefits, it is something that will help you reduce stress and anxiety symptoms, as well as some basic aches and pains.
- Very high THC levels – up to 24%
- Minty and Citrus-like taste
- Grows very tall (up to 8 ft)
Now here’s something for those who not only love to get high, but enjoy getting very high. With a THC concentration going as high as 24%, this is as strong as an Indica plant can get. The California Dream strain is one of the most popular Indica strains among stoners, and this is an Indica Dominant strain, with more than just a few traces of Sativa in it too, but we’ve included it here because pretty much all the properties/features of this strain are Indica-based.
If you are smoking this bud, you will get a very intense body high. Smoke this only after you’re done with the day’s work because once you’ve gotten high on California Dream, dreaming is all that you can do! This has a very potent sedative effect and it will ensure that you are sleeping in peace. The strain helps you relax your muscles as well as reduces stress and anxiety levels.
One thing that you must keep in mind while growing these plants is that they grow quite tall and quite rapidly too. They are easily six feet in height and generally go even beyond that, up to eight feet, by the time they reach maturity and flower. Plants of this strain can grow between three to four feet in just three to four weeks. The plants are naturally mold resistant and love a sunny/brightly lit setup.
California dream is also a high value for money strain, as it provides you a pound per square feet. You can get even more yield if you use the Screen of Green (SCROG) method of growing marijuana. It takes this strain about 9 weeks to reach the flowering phase. Consuming this weed would give you a very happy and euphoric sort of a high until it puts you to sleep.
- Indica dominant strain
- 16 to 18% THC concentration
- Known for appealing taste and smell
Black Cherry OG is an Indica-dominant strain derived from crossing the Ken’s OG x Granddaddy Purple strains. This is the kind of strain that you can identify purely on the basis of its unique smell and taste. Made from two very popular strains of marijuana, the Black Cherry OG tastes like berry and grapes, and emits a sweet smell that one would really appreciate. It leaves a tea-like aftertaste once you’ve blown out the smoke.
The strain carries a moderate 16 to 18% THC concentration, which makes it good for getting high, especially for beginners and for people who do not want a very strong knockout-blow. The kind of high that you get from smoking this weed is also quite comfortable. Smoking this weed is like getting under a warm blanket. You won’t ever feel like getting off the bed and you’ll find yourself very relaxed and sleepy.
The Black Cherry OG strain has a number of mood enhancing benefits too. It makes you feel all nice and warm and fuzzy and helps you improve your mood, making it good for people who suffer from chronic stress, anxiety or depression. The seed bank also points out that people with ADD and ADHD have also noticed quite a few benefits after smoking this weed.
These seeds take about nine to ten weeks to be ready for harvest, and provide you with about 220 to 250 grams of weed per square meter. This is truly something that is meant for the absolute connoisseurs who have been smoking weed for quite a while – and have learnt to appreciate various tastes. The unique berry-like taste of this seed and the tea-like aftertaste are the characteristic features of smoking this strain.
- Pure Indica Strain
- Up to 23% THC concentration
- Easy to grow
We now come to one of the top Indica strains on our list. This is the Grandaddy Purple strain, where you get 100% indica experience, along with a great look, an intense high, and an easy to grow plant. This is a plant that traces its origin in the West Coast, and at 23%, has a fairly high concentration of THC, which packs in quite a punch if you want to smoke it for the purpose of getting ‘high’.
As we’ve pointed out multiple times over the course of this article, most purple colored strains are Indica-dominant. This isn’t even an Indica-dominant strain, but is actually entirely made out of Indica strains as it comes as a cross between Purple Urkle and Big Bud, which are both good Indica strains.
Growers who have been around for a while know that this is largely an outdoors strain and gives you the best results when grown outdoors. However, if you do not have that option and instead choose to grow it indoors, it is still a pretty good option and will give you fairly good results. Just make sure that you are either growing it in a humid climate, or you maintain the humidity to about 50% – and you will get the best results possible.
The bud that grows from this plant has a very relaxing effect. However, with a concentration of 23% THC, you know that you’re in for quite a joyride because you will also get a ‘buzz’ that you will remember for a long time. However, once the high of the bud starts to wear off, you will begin to feel drowsy and soon enough you’ll find yourself in your bed. This is just the perfect kind of weed to end your day because it first puts you in a good mood and then relaxes your body.
The strain has a very sweet taste and gives you quite a bit of berry and fruit like taste. The plants that grow from these seeds enter the flowering stage at about the 9th week. One thing that is mildly disappointing about this otherwise perfect strain of weed is that it has a low yield – about 13 to 15 oz per square meter. However, you know what they say about good things coming in small batches! If you are looking for pure Indica strains, this is totally the one that you must go with.
- Indica-dominant strain
- THC levels up to 24%
- Takes about 9-10 weeks to reach flowering
This is the Blood Orange strain, an Indica dominant plant which comes as a cross between Pineapple, Aota and a third OG strain, the origins of which are quite unknown.Not only does this offer a high THC level, ranging generally between 20 to 24%, you also get a high CBD concentration, generally 1% or more. This strain brings to you the best of both worlds, and is perfect for growing indoors too! What’s there not to love about it?
This strain takes about 9 to 10 weeks to reach the flowering period, but once it is there, you will see all your efforts becoming a success. These are also a good option for those who wish to grow indoors inside grow tents because the Orange Kush bud does not attain a long height. These are shorter plants which are easy to grow.
This is one of those rare strains of Indica which will give you a very strong mind high before it gives you a body high. One more thing about this strain that a lot of people tend to appreciate is the fact that it offers a citric taste – lemony and tangy. At first you get a mind high, followed by a body high which will then relax you. It encourages creative thinking as well as helps relax tired muscles.
All-in-all, a good option for those who like buds that have a spicier tinge, and one which you must try out for the sake of variety! This is the kind of bud that is often a favourite in the weed lounges of Amsterdam.
- Indica Dominant Strain
- 20-25% THC content
- Minimal CBD content
This is a cross between Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies and Sunset Sherbert, a strain that we have already discussed above. Given the lineage of this strain, one can be assured of the fact that it is going to taste just right. This is also a strain which packs in quite a punch as it can get you really high with THC levels ranging between 20-25%. The best part about this strain, as you might already have guessed from the name, is the chocolaty flavor that you get when you smoke this.
The bud has a very creamy feel to it and you will feel the smoke melt in your mouth when you take the first drag. The smoke that you get when you exhale this bud is quite dense.If smoked up in moderation, this will give you a nice and mellow sort of a high which you can totally enjoy at social events. However, if you smoke it up to get ‘high’, it can help you get a strong body high by numbing down your body and reducing all aches and pains.
This strain takes about eight to nine weeks to attain flowering, and reaches a medium to tall height. This strain grows best in a sunny condition, which means if you are growing it indoors you will require some really bright lights. The strain isn’t really known to carry a lot of CBD content, but it can help you relax your muscles and get better sleep, if those properties are what you want from your weed.
- Indica-dominant strain
- Up to 20% THC levels
- Good and easy strain for indoor growers
If weed is known as the ‘Devil’s Herb’, this has got to be the devil’s favorite strain. Devil’s Crack is one of the best and among the most demanded strains of marijuana at Crop King Seeds. This is an Indica dominant strain which gives you an almost 80% pure Indica experience. This is created as a mix of White x Afghani x Original Skunk strains of marijuana and carries quite a good genetic lineage – including an Afghani strain.
The strain carries a decent THC level of about 20% but the CBD concentration is almost nil as it offers you about 0.01% CBD. One thing about this strain that you need to know is that it does not offer you any special or unique taste. It has the classic skunk-like smell and taste that people generally associate with marijuana. Given its Afghani and Original Skunk heritage, it has the classic earthy taste that you get from smoking the bud.
This is a plant that can grow in almost any condition! It can grow indoors, as well as in average sunlight. It grows to a short height, making it a good choice for indoor growers. Besides that, the strain requires no special care or attention and grows on its own. This is among the easiest strains of weed if you plan to grow on your own and it is, therefore, a good choice for people who are just starting out on their marijuana growing journey.
The weed gives a mild high at first – and this is a very quick reaction. The moment you start smoking up this bud, you will notice that you are feeling quite light and relaxed. Once you’re properly ‘high’ on it, you will be able to think clearly and relax without worrying too much about anything. This is a good stress-buster for people after a long and tiring day at work.
- Pure Indica Strain
- 22% THC content
- Chocolate and Coffee-like taste
Autoflowering strains are not for everyone. Once a grower has been around for a while and has mastered the art of growing a proper strain, they don’t really need an autoflowering strain. However, for someone who may be short on time, resources or experience, these strains are quite a lifesaver! The Bubba Kush strain is one of the most popular Indica strains and among the best indica strains all around the world – and this is its autoflowering variant.
This bud is not only known for its unique purple look, but is also quite popular for its high THC concentration at about 22%. When smoked, this is a strong enough strain to give you quite a punch. It carries an insignificant amount of CBD content, and suits the needs of most stoners pretty well – in terms of taste as well as the ‘hit’.
Talking of the way this bud tastes – it has a very coffee-like and chocolaty taste to it. This is a sweet tasting bud and is something that most stoners would appreciate. Bubba Kush is a common sight at parties and social gatherings around the world. This strain is easy to grow and takes about 8 week to reach the flowering phase.
One thing that you need to keep in mind here is that this is a low-yielding bud and if you plan to smoke a lot of it, it is best advised to grow quite a few of them together. You get about 5 oz of bud every square meter. However, as we’ve pointed out above – good things come in small packages! This is a strain that has won the Cannabis Cup as well as the Copa Cannabis Uruguay titles in the past and continues to impress stoners all over the world!
Frequently Asked Questions about Indica Strains
Now that you know which are some of the best options that you can buy and grow in 2021, here’s a closer look at some of the questions that we get asked quite frequently
1. What medicinal benefits does the Indica strain carry?
While research is still going on about the medicinal benefits of the Indica strain, there’s a lot that has come to light in recent years. Since most good Indica strains generally tend to have a higher CBD concentration than Sativa strains, a large number of people do use them for their medicinal effects. This is a great strain for someone who wants to sleep better. Furthermore, Cannabis Indica strains also allow you to reduce stress and anxiety levels. It is also a great muscle relaxant, as well as helps reduce inflammation and pain.
2. Which is the better strain – Cannabis Indica or Cannabis Sativa?
The answer to this question actually depends upon the person smoking it. There are some people who prefer smoking weed that gets them really ‘high’. Others want to consume marijuana for its medicinal benefits. Some people enjoy a particular smell or taste. Hence, it is different for everyone and there’s no ‘better’ strain. In fact, most marijuana strains are actually hybrids.
3. Does buying a seed ensure that it is going to grow into a plant?
No, there’s no 100% guarantee that the seed that you are buying WILL grow into a plant. However, there’s a good chance that it will, if you buy it from a reputed seed bank. Seed banks such as Crop King Seeds and I Love Growing Marijuana (ILGM) generally sell seeds which are of a higher-quality as they go through an intense ‘picking’ process. Some seed banks also offer you a refund or a ‘confirmed success rate’ up to 80-90%.
4. How to choose the right cannabis indica strain for your needs?
You need to take a closer look at various factors that you get from the strain that you are buying. These include (but are not limited to) the color of the bud, the taste that you get, the smell that comes when you smoke it, the CBD/THC concentration and the medicinal benefits of the weed that you will be consuming. Some people also like to take a closer look at the lineage of the plants that they are buying.
5. What kind of a high does Indica weed give you?
Let’s admit it. Most people smoke weed to get high, while some others consume it for medicinal benefits too. The two major strains of weed give you two very different kinds of ‘highs’ – Sativa strains make you hyperactive, fill you with energy and give you a ‘creative rush’ – basically, a mind high. Cannabis Indica, on the other hand – gives you a different kind of a high. When you smoke this strain, you get a body high. It makes you slow, lethargic and helps you relax better and sleep better. This is totally the kind of weed that you want to smoke after a long and tiring day at work.
6. Where can you buy marijuana seeds?
Marijuana seeds can be bought from online seed stores, commonly known as seed banks. There are many of them all over the world, concentrated largely across Europe and Canada, but also across many other parts of the world. Most seed banks allow you to purchase their seeds online as well, and even offer a warranty on a minimum germination rate. Seed banks are getting increasingly popular as more and more stoners decide to grow their own weed.
We hope that by the time you reach this point in the article, you leave us with more information about the cannabis Indica strain than you walked in with. Our main aim was to provide you with a detailed Indica strains list of various options that you can buy online. We hope that we helped you find the best strain for your needs. We have also provided a detailed review of each of these strains so that you get an all-round idea about them – including their genetic composition, taste, CBD/THC percentage, and the kind of high that they provide you, as well as the medicinal benefits that you get with them.
If there are any more Indica strains or Indica-dominant strains that you wish for us to review, do let us know in the comments below and we shall get back to you as soon as we can.
- 1 Best Strains of Cannabis Indica
- 1.1 1. White Rhino (Feminized)
- 1.2 2. Afghan Autoflower
- 1.3 3. Persian Mix
- 1.4 4. Sunset Sherbet (Feminized)
- 1.5 5. Corona Kush (Feminized)
- 1.6 6. Crushed Grapes (Feminized)
- 1.7 7. California Dream (Feminized)
- 1.8 8. Black Cherry OG
- 1.9 9. Granddaddy Purple Feminized
- 1.10 10. Blood Orange Kush Feminized
- 1.11 11. Chocolate Gelato (Feminized)
- 1.12 12. Devil’s Crack (Feminized)
- 1.13 13. Bubba Kush (Autoflower)
- 2 Frequently Asked Questions about Indica Strains
- 2.1 1. What medicinal benefits does the Indica strain carry?
- 2.2 2. Which is the better strain – Cannabis Indica or Cannabis Sativa?
- 2.3 3. Does buying a seed ensure that it is going to grow into a plant?
- 2.4 4. How to choose the right cannabis indica strain for your needs?
- 2.5 5. What kind of a high does Indica weed give you?
- 2.6 6. Where can you buy marijuana seeds?
- 3 Conclusion