When talking about grow rooms, you must keep a check on several things, especially when it comes to the temperature controller and the humidity regulators. But, one item that is a make or breaks for these grow tents is the LED grow lights. They are cheap and they get the work done in ensuring optimal winter growth and preventing the risks of damage to the variety of crops that you are likely growing.
With the growing popularity of grow lights in the market, you must keep a check on the quality of the product and the kind of price range they come with. But, when it comes to buying grow lights, there is one thing that everyone is skeptical about and that is the price. The majority of the high-end grow lights are expensive, which means that they will dig a hole in your bank account.
But, with diversifying customer base, even brands are coming out with products that can suffice the needs of every user in the market. Some of the grow lights now come with cheaper quality yet sustainable materials that make them last longer than you can imagine.
When looking through the internet for the best LED grow lights, we came across a few ones that are cheap and won’t dig a hole in your pocket. So, we thought we’d list out the best ones that you wouldn’t regret splurging out on.
Here are a few important and cheap LED grow lights that you wouldn’t regret spending your money on.
10 Best and Affordable LED Grow Lights in 2022
When talking about cheaper LED grow lights for your grow room, there are a few important factors that you wouldn’t regret taking a look into. Here are the best ones available in the market.
When looking at cheaper LED grow lights, JUEYINGBAILI is likely one of the most popular brands in the market. It features a four head flexible design that helps keep your indoor plants in check and ensure optimal growth without any issues.
It comes designed with four goosenecks that make it easier for the user to adjust the light settings according to one’s needs. The coverage area with this LED grows light is up to 27 inches, which is pretty good for the kind of price it comes with.
The designers of these grow lights have ensured to develop and design the grow lights in a way that ensures proper growth of the plants. It comes in three adjustable light settings and modes including red, blue, and mixed light.
So, if you have plants inside the room that doesn’t get direct sunlight, you wouldn’t regret getting them at all. The lights also come with nine different brightness settings that can skirt between 20-100% without any issues.
It is also designed with an Intelligent timing function that allows you to turn off the lights whenever it’s not needed. So, you wouldn’t likely have to worry about the constant need for manual functions, especially when you are on a vacation.
The grow lights also come with adjustable goosenecks that enable the users to elongate or carry it around the house whenever it is needed. The 360-degree movement and flexibility are likely one of the primary reasons why it is such a popular option.
- The flexible gooseneck design
- Automatic switch on and off
- Adjustable light settings
- Arms are a little flimsy
Another option in the list of the cheapest LED grow lights that are worth looking into is the CXHome Grow Lights. You get four bars of grow LED lights with this product and each bar of LED Grow lights contains 21 individual LED lights that enable full-spectrum growth of the indoor plants.
It comes with a timer facility that lets you set the automatic switch on and off every three, six, and twelve hours, depending on the requirements of the users. The three colour modes respond to three different light settings that come with this product.
You can check the timer function by checking whether the light is switched on or off. Aside from the timer control of these grow lights, you also get to experience the best with the varying brightness levels that are also adjustable.
It also comes with dual-channel control that divides the light bar into 2 sets with different light checks. All you have to do is press the switch on to open the specified channel or open all the channels that come in this set of grow lights.
Unlike the other cheaper LED light options for the grow rooms, this one comes with 3 meters long double-sided tape that enables you to install it anywhere that you want. The package also comes with 15 cable ties that enable you to affix the grow lights anywhere that you want.
The product is also backed with one of the best realms of warranty and quality assurance. You will get a 1-year warranty with this grow light, which is quite rare when you are looking into the cheaper LED grow light options.
- Dual-channel control
- Adjustable timer
- Comes with a 1-year warranty
- Setting up the timer is confusing
Specially designed for indoor plants and grow rooms, the Aogled Grow Light is likely one of the absolute best available options in the market. The entire unit consists of 50 energy-efficient LED lights in multiple colours of red, blue, cool white, and mixed colours.
These LED lights are designed following the photosynthetically active radiation, ensuring delivery of full-spectrum light. The energy-efficient lights are 20% brighter compared to the other options, which further makes it an ideal option.
It runs on 18W power, which saves up to 88% energy compared to all the remaining options in the market. As for the panel of these grow lights, they are made of aluminum, which is durable, rust-proof, and long-lasting as well.
The product is also quite easy to install, which further makes this an ideal purchase. You can either hang it from the ceiling or this item also comes with a 120-degree handle that can be easily mounted to the ceiling or any other structure that you have.
This set of LED grows lights is also pretty amazing, especially when we are looking into the indoor plant’s settings and the hydroponics. It also comes with complimentary light settings that work for fruits and vegetables as well.
As for the assistance, the product is backed with a 90-days return policy. So, in case you find that it is not working out for you, you can end up returning the product without any questions asked. They also provide with round clock customer assistance.
- Energy-efficient lights
- Easy installation
- Reliable brand and customer service
- Brightness is not optimal
Next up on the list, we have the Roleadro LED Grow Light, which is another cheap yet quality product. It provides a full-spectrum light length, providing up to 720nm waveband, enabling you to grow some of the most sensitive grow room plants too.
Even with the wider range of LED light settings in this product, you wouldn’t have to worry about heat dissipation, which is often one of the most common issues that people face. It is encased with an aluminum cooling plate that ensures smoother heat dispersion.
The grow lights are also designed with a lightweight design that makes it easier for you to hang them up using the hanging brackets. It has a very sturdy outer design, which further ensures that the lights stay in one place without moving around.
The brand has also been in the market for the past 11 years, which means that the products are going to be nothing that you have to worry about. You also get 30 months of warranty with this product, which ensures maximum reliability with this product.
- Uniform light dispersion
- Lightweight design
- 30 months warranty
- Doesn’t come with automatic settings
Another product that you wouldn’t regret splurging out on is the SEA METAL 2-Pack LED Grow Lights. This one comes in a pack of two, which means that it is likely one of the absolute best options in the market you can look into.
The grow light settings feature a 12×12” flat panels that ensure that you wouldn’t regret splurging out on. This particularly works better in the indoor environment settings as well as the winter months when everything is cold and morbid.
The product also comes with 3500K red and white lights that work ideally for both the flowering plants and the vegetative growth of the other plants that you have around. These lights are also programmed with advanced LED technology, which is rare for a cheaper product like this one.
Even with the fewer LED lights, the efficiency of this product is pretty high, which means that you will get the power of 300 Watts HID grow lights with the power of just 70-watt power. Moreover, the product is also energy-efficient, making this an ideal option to look into.
Aside from the reliability of the product, you also get a 30-days hassle free return from this brand. Also, you get 1-year warranty backup with this product, which further makes this an ideal purchase that you wouldn’t regret splurging out on.
- Energy-efficient product
- 1-year warranty backup
- Comes in a pack of two
- Doesn’t cover a lot of space
When talking about cheaper and reliable LED grow lights, VIPARSPECTRA LED Grow Light is likely one of the best options in the market. It ensures full-spectrum light dispersion for smoother growth of the indoor plants and hydroponic settings.
The brand is also one of the most popular ones, which ensures that you wouldn’t have to regret splurging out on this product at all. The daisy chain function of the grow light is another positive factor about this product that enables switching on multiple lights in one setting.
It covers around 3×3” surface area, which means that you wouldn’t have to regret it at all. It also features 100% veg brightness and 60% bloom brightness, making it ideal for extended hours of usage. It prevents the risks of hotspots too.
The encasing of this LED grow light system comes designed with a powerful cooling system and built-in aluminum heat sinks that prevent the risks of overheating, so you wouldn’t have to regret the quality of the product.
Aside from the reliability of the product, you also get a 30-days of money-back and return policy with 2 years of warranty for the product, which is another benefit that you wouldn’t regret splurging out on. You also get proper customer assistance with this product.
- Comes with a daisy chain function
- Proper brightness
- Prevents risks of overheating
- A little overpriced than the others
7. MAXSISUN PB1000 Pro Grow Light
When it comes to hydroponics and greenhouses, you can’t go wrong with grow lights. Those are a quintessential part of the whole growing process of the plants in an indoor setting, so it isn’t even a surprise that finding good-quality grow lights is a necessity.
The MAXSISUN PB1000 Pro Grow Light is one of the cheapest yet high-quality grow lights that you can consider investing your coins in, especially if you have a larger hydroponics setup that requires consistent and widespread grow light settings.
The handy remote-control system in this grow light system comes in handy, especially if you want to adjust the brightness according to the kind of plants that you are growing in. From simpler vegetative growth to tending to the flowering plants, these grow lights take care of all your needs.
These grow lights are full-spectrum lights that are tailored to provide different intensities of light settings, including white light, neutral white, deep red, and even infrared light if needed. The grow light is fitted with high-quality 350pcs LED bulbs for heightened efficiency without complaints.
Aside from adjusting the brightness using the remote, you can also use the same for grouping the multiple lights depending on the efficacy. Also, the grow light can seamlessly reach up to 200 watts and generate up to 50% less heat, which is another reason why it is such a popular purchase.
Maxisun is not a new brand but has been around for years now. So, it isn’t surprising that they offer up to a 90-days money-back guarantee with three years of limited warranty on the product, something that you generally wouldn’t expect for a product of this price.
- Full-spectrum light settings
- Integrated with 350 pcs of LED bulbs
- Higher photon efficiency
- Value for money with budget-friendly price
- Backed with 3-years limited warranty
- Inconsistent dimmer settings
8. HYSTORM HY 600W LED Grow Light
If you are particularly a fan of the boxed grow lights, the HYSTORM HY 600W LED Grow Light is just what you need. The set features high-quality and responsive double chip 10W LED lights for superior growth of the plants without any complaints.
The full-spectrum light is further designed with nine bands of LED that enable you to experience the maximum best experience when it comes to helping with the growth of the plants, be it the standard ones or the flowering ones.
Lighting these LED lights for 15-18 hours per day can do magic for your entire setup without inflicting any kinds of unnecessary damage that several individuals can often complain about. The exterior of the setup is designed with a 3mm aluminum plate with a radiator for uniform heat dissipation.
Despite the heightened brightness, the grow light uses only 125W power, helping you save a lot on your power bills without any compromise at all. Also, the wider design of the grow light allows you to have twice the better coverage as the standard grow lights in a similar price range.
As for the after-sales service, the brand assures a 90-days money-back guarantee with three years of limited lifetime warranty without any complications.
- Integrated with double chip 10W LED
- Designed with an aluminum plate for better heat dissipation
- Comes with 3 years warranty
- Energy-efficient model
- Adjustable brightness
- Lacks daisy chain setting
9. Briignite LED Grow Light
One of the cheapest grow lights in the market has to be the Briignite LED Grow Light. Although people are skeptical of the price point, you don’t have to worry about the quality of the product, which is pretty impressive.
The entire grow light setup in this is designed with 600W grow light with high-efficiency functioning as you have never experienced before. Also, these LED bulbs are designed to consume 50% less power and provide with 30% higher yield from the plants that you have.
The best part of these grow lights is that they come with a dimming knob, which means that you wouldn’t have to worry about overheating or damaging your plants with prolonged heat exposure. Also, you can adjust the grow light from 0-100%, which means that you have a complete reign of the settings.
As with the majority of the other recommendations, even this one features a heavy-duty and high-quality full-spectrum light setup, which comes in handy when you are trying to make the most use out of the product.
The exterior casing of the grow lights features the staple aluminum setup, which ensures superior heat dissipation without causing unnecessary damage as you’d normally expect. Also, the entire setup is waterproof, which makes your life a lot easier as well.
As for the brand and the quality of the product, you wouldn’t have to worry because the brand is reliable and offers nothing but the absolute best. Also, in case you aren’t satisfied with the product, you can easily get it replaced. However, they lack proper warranty information, which is a downside.
- Integrated with high-intensity 600W LED lights
- Made with aluminum casing
- Waterproof setting
- Heavy-duty construction
- Ensures uniform heat dissipation
- Light doesn’t spread out well
10. VOGEK LED Growing Light
When talking about cheaper LED grow lights, VOGEK LED Growing Light is one of the best options in the market. It is one of the few good-quality grow lights that are priced under $50, making this one of the best options in the market.
It does come with adjustable time settings that you can adjust according to your needs, especially with three, six- and twelve-hour duration. If you live in a place that doesn’t get enough sunlight during the day, this can get your job done.
It comes with an automatic restart and switches off option, which means that you wouldn’t have to worry about operating it manually. This product also comes with multiple adjustable brightness levels, which means that you can either choose one series or switch on the entire thing according to your needs.
The grow light design comes with a durable table clip design on the bottom that enables the users to keep it sorted without any issues at all. It also features three bendable goosenecks that allow you to adjust the design according to your needs.
The grow lights also offer full-spectrum coverage, which means that you can cover a wider surface area without any complaints at all. The entire grow light set comes with 144 LEDs that ensure brighter light dispersion without any issues.
The design of this LED grow light ensures that you wouldn’t have to worry about hot spots on the plants, which restricts the growth of the plants and imposes risks of damage. It enables the uniform dispersion of the light for optimal growth.
- Automatic functions
- Comes with a bendable and flexible design
- Uniform light dispersion
- Not the best for extremely sensitive plants
11. GVG LED 600W Full Spectrum Grow Light
When you’re looking for some of the cheapest LED grow lights available in the markets, you might want to give a serious thought to the GVG 600W LED grow light, which is one of the best such options out there. Let us talk about the price straight up. At the time of this writing, it is priced in at $35.99 – however, prices tend to vary 10% here or there every now and then. In any case, this is a grow light that generally does not exceed $40, making it an ideal purchase for most growers who aren’t looking to splurge a large amount of money.
This brings us to the next question – who should be buying this grow light? The answer comes to you when you take a closer look at the kind of coverage this light has to offer. The light covers an area of 2×2 ft, which makes it suitable only for very small scale growers and for personal scale growers who might want to hook up two of them together and get things rolling. However, another use of this grow light is as an additional source of lighting to boost up the existing lighting solutions. Some users might even want to buy a cheap LED grow light to use as a backup light in case their main grow light is damaged or needs repairs.
This GVG grow light offers a high efficacy rating at 2.7 umols/J. This grow light can easily replace a traditional HPS/MH light of 600W while consuming only 60W from the power socket, which is an immense benefit here – saving up to 90% electricity compared to the previous light. The grow light makes use of 234 diodes and provides a rather bright lighting experience.
Another thing that a lot of people really appreciate about this grow light is that it operates on a fanless design. There is no fan, which means that this is a ‘sleep friendly’ LED grow light. Fans tend to create quite a nuisance with their sounds – however, when you remove them, you get noise-free lighting. This light makes use of heat sinks to ensure all heat is dissipated. Furthermore, it is also a great grow light for beginners as it has a very easy plug-and-play setup. There are no unnecessary complications involved. Lastly, if you look at the warranty period that you get here, you’d be surprised. The light offers a 36-month warranty. At the price point that it comes at, the GVG 600W LED grow light indeed punches way above its weight!
- Full-spectrum lighting is fit for both the phases of growth.
- Easy to install and set up
- Fanless operation – operates rather silently
- Very inexpensive
- Long warranty period
- Keep this light safe from electrical fluctuations
An Ultimate Buyer’s Guide
When it comes to growing plants in an indoor area, ‘grow tents’ or ‘grow rooms’ play an important role in providing your plants with the necessary growth conditions and temperature. Grow tents are easily portable and hence can be placed anywhere you wish. To keep a regular check on the plants growing inside the tent, you will need an efficient LED light. If it’s both cheaper and efficient, it’s an added advantage. People who grow multiple plants can buy additional LED lights to observe the plant growth. Here are a few useful tips you should consider before placing an order on the cheapest LED grow lights.
Brightness & number of lights
Considering the cheapest LED grow lights, the first thing that comes to our mind is the brightness. The main purpose of installing grow lights inside your grow room is for the brightness to observe what’s going on inside the grow room. So, make sure the intensity of the LED lights caters for your plant requirements. It must not be too bright, as it can disturb plant growth by producing enormous heat. It should also not be dim as you will face strains in observing the plant growth. The light intensity should be at the optimum range, according to the grow room area. After brightness, you should also decide the number of lights you are going to purchase. The number of lights will depend on the grow room area and the number of plants. Single light would be sufficient for a small grow tent, while you’ll need two or more LED grow lights for a larger grow room.
Durability & construction
Next comes the durability of the cheapest LED lights. Make sure the lighting units are of good durable quality for a longer lifespan. You don’t want the lights to stop working after a few weeks or months. See if the lights are made of durable materials. Purchasing grow lights from a brand that provides a warranty is highly recommended as you can claim the warranty in case of any technical failures or repairs. Grow lights of good quality will last for many years. The warranty period can vary between 1 to 10 years, depending on the brand. Expensive grow lights come with a longer warranty period and high-quality materials. There are also affordable grow lights in the market with good durability and a decent warranty period. You can go through the website of the light brand for warranty details.
Light coverage area
There are different kinds of cheapest LED grow lights in the market. The coverage area of the grow lights depends on the grow room size or dimensions. The grow area size depends on every person. Some might grow plants in 4’ x 4’ area while some might grow in 8’ x 8’ area. You should buy lights according to your grow room space or size. Some of you might be confused and unaware of what kind of lights you should buy for your grow room area. In such scenarios, you can consult a professional for advice or ideas. You can also check the PPF reading and PAR chart of the manufacturer to decide the light intensity and coverage.
Budget & Brand
Decide your budget before purchasing grow lights. As the years pass, new models of LED grow lights evolve every day. Before reviewing a suitable and cheap LED grow light for your grow tent, figure out how much you can invest in them. The features, construction, design, and quality of the grow lights will also vary according to the price. You should also make sure you buy it from a reputed and trustworthy brand. It is suggested you prefer brands that provide customer support and a warranty period. You can claim the warranty if something goes wrong. This will be a good value for money.
Besides all the above-mentioned factors, you can also consider some additional useful features when buying grow lights. This will include energy-saving technology, a cooling system, low noise technology, etc. Some LED bulbs are equipped to lower your energy costs. You can opt for such models to save your energy bills. Your plants won’t grow well if they grow lights produce too much heat, hence you can opt for cheaper LED lights with minimized heat or cooling technology. Some cheaper LED light models also come with low or no noises to not disturb your plants.
1. Are the cheaper grow lights worth it?
We are often told that only the expensive products are worth our time. But, that is not the case at all. Even cheaper products can be extremely good quality. That is the case with all of these cheap LED grow lights that we have mentioned above. Even with a cheaper price point, they are programmed with some of the best features that you wouldn’t regret spending your coins on.
2. What to look for in cheap LED grow lights?
It doesn’t matter what kind of price you are paying, there are specific factors that you need to look out for when it comes to the LED grow lights. From the light intensity of the LED lights to the coverage area and the spectrum, there are quite a few factors that you need to keep a check on.
3. What spectrum of grow lights do plants use?
For those who are confused, the light spectrum defines the temperature wavelength of the grow light. The required spectrum of light is dependent on the type of plant that you are growing. So, make sure that you check the same accordingly and then settle on the spectrum that works the best for you.
4. How to keep cheap LED grow lights cool?
In order to keep your grow light cool, make sure that you’re either buying a grow light that comes with built-in fans or features a really good heat dissipation system. If you are still facing heating issues, you might want to use an external clip-on fan to keep things cool. Another benefit of using an external fan is that it helps create a gentle breeze which is great for the development of the stem. Lastly, you might also want to consider using a mini AC or even a regular-sized air conditioner if you are growing a larger number of plants.
5. Is it safe to use cheap LED grow lights?
Yes, when it comes to using cheap LED lights, the manufacturers usually cut quality on the kind of LEDs that they use and the kind of output you get. Safety is generally one aspect that is never compromised. In a worst-case scenario, it is possible that your grow light might end up losing a few diodes to electrical overloads. However, just to remain safe, make sure your lights are not overheating. Especially if you know that you are using cheap LED grow lights, you might want to check on them regularly to see if they’re heating up too much.
6. Where to buy the cheapest LED grow lights?
Walking into a physical store that sells gardening supplies is one of the best ways to get hold of cheap LED grow lights. Just ask them to show you their least priced options. However, if you want a better variety of options and more brands to choose from, you might want to consider buying these lights from the Amazon web store, where you get a much larger range of products as well as easier returns and replacements. You also get better deals and discounts on Amazon.
7. Is it safe to buy renewed or second-hand LED grow lights?
Yes, renewed or second hand LED grow lights are generally safe to buy, but we would recommend getting new ones instead because primarily, these lights have a limited lifespan anyway, and when you get an old or a used grow light, you don’t really know how much wear and tear it has seen in the past – besides, new lights generally offer you a 2-3 year warranty as well. However, we recommend getting renewed or second hand LED grow lights if you want to use them as a backup light or as an add-on light, but not for the purpose of using them as your primary source of lighting. These lights are also great for you if you live in an area where electric supply is such that it damages your lights frequently.
8. Are there any cheap fanless LED grow lights available?
Yes, fanless LED grow lights are no longer a rarity – they have become rather mainstream of late, and there are a large number of brands which are coming out with fanless LED grow lights at a rather affordable price point. You can find these grow lights at almost all price points, starting from the sub-$100 category going all the way to $400 and beyond. Fanless LED grow lights have a lot of advantages – giving you not only a high-quality lighting, but also eliminate the sound of the fans. Furthermore, they operate at very low temperatures and have a very different heat dissipation mechanism from the bulky old lights. Fanless LED grow lights are becoming so common that over the next few years, we expect to see them dominate over 50% of the LED grow light markets.
9. Which brands make some of the best cheap LED grow lights?
Pretty much every major brand has a range of products, starting with a low-end light that covers a smaller area or delivers a smaller wattage, going all the way to the largest wattage or the largest coverage. There are options available for every brand and you can pick and choose based on your preference. Viparspectra and Maxisun are among two of the biggest names in the grow lights markets which offer some really good quality cheap LED grow lights for those who don’t want to spend too much. Getting a cheap LED grow light from a better-known brand helps you get the peace of mind that if things go south, you will at least be entitled to good customer support.
10. Who are cheap LED grow lights really meant for?
Cheap LED grow lights are a great option for someone who is just starting off with growing marijuana. These grow lights are also perfect for someone who isn’t really sure about what they are doing – or doesn’t plan to use them for a longer period, beyond a couple of seasons. These lights are also great for someone who wants to use them as either backup lights while their main lights have gone for repair, or as booster-lights, which can be used in outdoor setups, as well as for providing an extra jolt of growth power for plants that are growing indoors. Some users prefer buying spectrum-specific boosters as these cheap LED grow lights.
11. Do cheap LED grow lights support dimming?
This is a rarity, but you can find the occasional cheap LED grow light that does support dimming. You don’t really find it a lot in lower-priced LED lights because the quality of ballasts that is used in these lights is the first one to be affected. However, dimmable grow lights being expensive is a thing of the past, where they were priced at $200 and beyond. Now you can easily find lights between $100 to $120 which support dimmable features – even allowing you to program the dimmability of the light. There are plenty of options these days – we suggest checking the product descriptions in detail to get hold of these lights.
Before we end this article, we’d like to emphasize the fact that just because they are cheap doesn’t mean they are of bad quality. Several products are available for cheaper price points after discounts, so make sure that you keep a check on the same too. We have sorted out our favorite seven products with hopes that it will come in handy for you as well. Always ensure that you check the product that works the best for you and then make the final purchase.
A rotating team of writers and editors dedicated to providing reliable information for the readers of American Promise. We’re all passionate about cannabis and actively engaged in this “budding” industry.
- 1 10 Best and Affordable LED Grow Lights in 2022
- 1.1 1. JUEYINGBAILI Grow Lights
- 1.2 2. CXHome Grow Lights
- 1.3 3. Aogled Grow Light
- 1.4 4. Roleadro LED Grow Light
- 1.5 5. SEAMETAL 2-Pack LED Grow Lights
- 1.6 6. VIPARSPECTRA LED Grow Light
- 1.7 7. MAXSISUN PB1000 Pro Grow Light
- 1.8 8. HYSTORM HY 600W LED Grow Light
- 1.9 9. Briignite LED Grow Light
- 1.10 10. VOGEK LED Growing Light
- 1.11 11. GVG LED 600W Full Spectrum Grow Light
- 2 An Ultimate Buyer’s Guide
- 3 FAQs
- 3.1 1. Are the cheaper grow lights worth it?
- 3.2 2. What to look for in cheap LED grow lights?
- 3.3 3. What spectrum of grow lights do plants use?
- 3.4 4. How to keep cheap LED grow lights cool?
- 3.5 5. Is it safe to use cheap LED grow lights?
- 3.6 6. Where to buy the cheapest LED grow lights?
- 3.7 7. Is it safe to buy renewed or second-hand LED grow lights?
- 3.8 8. Are there any cheap fanless LED grow lights available?
- 3.9 9. Which brands make some of the best cheap LED grow lights?
- 3.10 10. Who are cheap LED grow lights really meant for?
- 3.11 11. Do cheap LED grow lights support dimming?
- 4 Conclusion